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Accessing the Clusters

Shell Access

All IT4Innovations clusters are accessed by the SSH protocol via login nodes at the address The login nodes may be addressed specifically, by prepending the loginX node name to the address.


The alias is currently not available through VPN connection. Use when connected to VPN.

Karolina Cluster

Login address Port Protocol Login node 22 SSH round-robin DNS record for login[1-4] 22 SSH login1 22 SSH login2 22 SSH login3 22 SSH login4

Barbora Cluster

Login address Port Protocol Login node 22 SSH round-robin DNS record for login[1-2] 22 SSH login1 22 SSH login2

Salomon Cluster

Login address Port Protocol Login node 22 SSH round-robin DNS record for login[1-4] 22 SSH login1 22 SSH login2 22 SSH login3 22 SSH login4


Authentication is available by private key only. Verify SSH fingerprints during the first logon:


    39:55:e2:b9:2a:a2:c4:9e:b1:8e:f0:f7:b1:66:a8:73 (RSA)
    63:29:4c:3d:17:8c:be:73:4a:99:ff:83:66:ba:dd:c3 (ECDSA)
    40:67:03:26:d3:6c:a0:7f:0a:df:0e:e7:a0:52:cc:4e (ED25519)

    TO5szOJf0bG7TWVLO3WABUpGKkP7nBm/RLyHmpoNpro (RSA)
    lg+AaptpqFlEu5+lBecgaVdiSlYljo5+ADLItQRSYVA (ECDSA)
    ZQzFTJVDdZa3I0ics9ME2qz4v5a3QzXugvyVioaH6tI (ED25519)


    f6:28:98:e4:f9:b2:a6:8f:f2:f4:2d:0a:09:67:69:80 (DSA)
    70:01:c9:9a:5d:88:91:c7:1b:c0:84:d1:fa:4e:83:5c (RSA)
    66:32:0a:ef:50:01:77:a7:52:3f:d9:f8:23:7c:2c:3a (ECDSA)
    ab:3d:5e:ff:82:68:c7:72:da:4a:2d:e3:ca:85:0d:df (ED25519)

    epkqEU2eFzXnMeMMkpX02CykyWjGyLwFj528Vumpzn4 (DSA)
    WNIrR7oeQDYpBYy4N2d5A6cJ2p0837S7gzzTpaDBZrc (RSA)
    cYO4UdtUBYlS46GEFUB75BkgxkI6YFQvjVuFxOlRG3g (ECDSA)
    bFm3stNM8ETmj8Xd7iPXNtu5X5dC2apLNXGiH3VSTuw (ED25519)


SSH fingerprints are identical on all login nodes.

Private key authentication:

On Linux or Mac, use:

$ ssh -i /path/to/id_rsa

If you see a warning message UNPROTECTED PRIVATE KEY FILE!, use this command to set lower permissions to the private key file:

$ chmod 600 /path/to/id_rsa

On Windows, use the PuTTY SSH client.

After logging in, you will see the command prompt:

  ___   _____   _  _     ___                                           _     _
 |_ _| |_   _| | || |   |_ _|  _ __    _ __     ___   __   __   __ _  | |_  (_)   ___    _ __    ___
  | |    | |   | || |_   | |  | '_ \  | '_ \   / _ \  \ \ / /  / _` | | __| | |  / _ \  | '_ \  / __|
  | |    | |   |__   _|  | |  | | | | | | | | | (_) |  \ V /  | (_| | | |_  | | | (_) | | | | | \__ \
 |___|   |_|      |_|   |___| |_| |_| |_| |_|  \___/    \_/    \__,_|  \__| |_|  \___/  |_| |_| |___/


Last login: Tue Jul 9 15:57:38 2013 from
[username@login2.cluster-name ~]$


The environment is not shared between login nodes, except for shared filesystems.

Data Transfer

Data in and out of the system may be transferred by SCP and SFTP protocols.

Karolina Cluster

Address Port Protocol 22 SCP, SFTP 22 SCP, SFTP 22 SCP, SFTP 22 SCP, SFTP 22 SCP, SFTP

Barbora Cluster

Address Port Protocol 22 SCP 22 SCP 22 SCP

Salomon Cluster

Address Port Protocol 22 SCP, SFTP 22 SCP, SFTP 22 SCP, SFTP 22 SCP, SFTP 22 SCP, SFTP

Authentication is by private key only.


If you experience degraded data transfer performance, consult your local network provider.

On Linux or Mac, use an SCP or SFTP client to transfer data to Barbora:

$ scp -i /path/to/id_rsa my-local-file
$ scp -i /path/to/id_rsa -r my-local-dir


$ sftp -o IdentityFile=/path/to/id_rsa

A very convenient way to transfer files in and out of cluster is via the fuse filesystem SSHFS.

$ sshfs -o IdentityFile=/path/to/id_rsa mountpoint

Using SSHFS, the user's Barbora home directory will be mounted on your local computer, just like an external disk.

Learn more about SSH, SCP, and SSHFS by reading the manpages:

$ man ssh
$ man scp
$ man sshfs

On Windows, use the WinSCP client to transfer data. The win-sshfs client provides a way to mount the cluster filesystems directly as an external disc.

More information about the shared file systems is available here.

Connection Restrictions

Outgoing connections from cluster login nodes to the outside world are restricted to the following ports:

Port Protocol
22 SSH
873 Rsync


Use SSH port forwarding and proxy servers to connect from cluster to all other remote ports.

Outgoing connections from cluster compute nodes are restricted to the internal network. Direct connections from compute nodes to the outside world are cut.

Port Forwarding

Port Forwarding From Login Nodes


Port forwarding allows an application running on cluster to connect to arbitrary remote hosts and ports.

It works by tunneling the connection from cluster back to the user's workstations and forwarding from the workstation to the remote host.

Select an unused port on the cluster login node (for example 6000) and establish the port forwarding:

$ ssh -R

In this example, we establish port forwarding between port 6000 on the cluster and port 1234 on the By accessing localhost:6000 on the cluster, an application will see the response of The traffic will run via the user's local workstation.

Port forwarding may be done using PuTTY as well. On the PuTTY Configuration screen, load your cluster configuration first. Then go to Connection > SSH > Tunnels to set up the port forwarding. Click the Remote radio button. Insert 6000 to the Source port textbox. Insert Click Add, then Open.

Port forwarding may be established directly to the remote host. However, this requires that the user has an SSH access to

$ ssh -L 6000:localhost:1234


Port number 6000 is chosen as an example only. Pick any free port.

Port Forwarding From Compute Nodes

Remote port forwarding from compute nodes allows applications running on the compute nodes to access hosts outside the cluster.

First, establish the remote port forwarding from the login node, as described above.

Second, invoke port forwarding from the compute node to the login node. Insert the following line into your jobscript or interactive shell:

$ ssh  -TN -f -L 6000:localhost:6000 login1

In this example, we assume that port forwarding from login1:6000 to has been established beforehand. By accessing localhost:6000, an application running on a compute node will see the response of

Using Proxy Servers

Port forwarding is static; each single port is mapped to a particular port on a remote host. Connection to another remote host requires a new forward.


Applications with inbuilt proxy support experience unlimited access to remote hosts via a single proxy server.

To establish a local proxy server on your workstation, install and run the SOCKS proxy server software. On Linux, SSHD demon provides the functionality. To establish the SOCKS proxy server listening on port 1080 run:

$ ssh -D 1080 localhost

On Windows, install and run the free, open source Sock Puppet server.

Once the proxy server is running, establish the SSH port forwarding from cluster to the proxy server, port 1080, exactly as described above:

$ ssh -R 6000:localhost:1080

Now, configure the applications proxy settings to localhost:6000. Use port forwarding to access the proxy server from compute nodes, as well.

Graphical User Interface

  • The X Window system is the principal way to get a GUI access to the clusters.
  • Virtual Network Computing is a graphical desktop-sharing system that uses a Remote Frame Buffer protocol to remotely control another computer.

VPN Access

  • Access IT4Innovations internal resources via VPN.