Accessing the Cluster

Shell Access

The Salomon cluster is accessed by SSH protocol via login nodes login1, login2, login3 and login4 at address salomon.it4i.cz. The login nodes may be addressed specifically, by prepending the login node name to the address.

Note

The alias salomon.it4i.cz is currently not available through VPN connection. Please use loginX.salomon.it4i.cz when connected to VPN.

Login address Port Protocol Login node
salomon.it4i.cz 22 ssh round-robin DNS record for login[1-4]
login1.salomon.it4i.cz 22 ssh login1
login2.salomon.it4i.cz 22 ssh login2
login3.salomon.it4i.cz 22 ssh login3
login4.salomon.it4i.cz 22 ssh login4

The authentication is by the private key

Note

Please verify SSH fingerprints during the first logon. They are identical on all login nodes: f6:28:98:e4:f9:b2:a6:8f:f2:f4:2d:0a:09:67:69:80 (DSA) 70:01:c9:9a:5d:88:91:c7:1b:c0:84:d1:fa:4e:83:5c (RSA)

Private key authentication:

On Linux or Mac, use

local $ ssh -i /path/to/id_rsa username@salomon.it4i.cz

If you see warning message "UNPROTECTED PRIVATE KEY FILE!", use this command to set lower permissions to private key file.

local $ chmod 600 /path/to/id_rsa

On Windows, use PuTTY ssh client.

After logging in, you will see the command prompt:

                    _____       _
                   / ____|     | |
                  | (___   __ _| | ___  _ __ ___   ___  _ __
                   \___ \ / _` | |/ _ \| '_ ` _ \ / _ \| '_ \
                   ____) | (_| | | (_) | | | | | | (_) | | | |
                  |_____/ \__,_|_|\___/|_| |_| |_|\___/|_| |_|


                        http://www.it4i.cz/?lang=en


Last login: Tue Jul 9 15:57:38 2013 from your-host.example.com
[username@login2.salomon ~]$

Note

The environment is not shared between login nodes, except for shared filesystems.

Data Transfer

Data in and out of the system may be transferred by the scp and sftp protocols.

Address Port Protocol
salomon.it4i.cz 22 scp, sftp
login1.salomon.it4i.cz 22 scp, sftp
login2.salomon.it4i.cz 22 scp, sftp
login3.salomon.it4i.cz 22 scp, sftp
login4.salomon.it4i.cz 22 scp, sftp

The authentication is by the private key

On linux or Mac, use scp or sftp client to transfer the data to Salomon:

local $ scp -i /path/to/id_rsa my-local-file username@salomon.it4i.cz:directory/file
local $ scp -i /path/to/id_rsa -r my-local-dir username@salomon.it4i.cz:directory

or

local $ sftp -o IdentityFile=/path/to/id_rsa username@salomon.it4i.cz

Very convenient way to transfer files in and out of the Salomon computer is via the fuse filesystem sshfs

local $ sshfs -o IdentityFile=/path/to/id_rsa username@salomon.it4i.cz:. mountpoint

Using sshfs, the users Salomon home directory will be mounted on your local computer, just like an external disk.

Learn more on ssh, scp and sshfs by reading the manpages

$ man ssh
$ man scp
$ man sshfs

On Windows, use WinSCP client to transfer the data. The win-sshfs client provides a way to mount the Salomon filesystems directly as an external disc.

More information about the shared file systems is available here.

Connection Restrictions

Outgoing connections, from Salomon Cluster login nodes to the outside world, are restricted to following ports:

Port Protocol
22 ssh
80 http
443 https
9418 git

Note

Please use ssh port forwarding and proxy servers to connect from Salomon to all other remote ports.

Outgoing connections, from Salomon Cluster compute nodes are restricted to the internal network. Direct connections form compute nodes to outside world are cut.

Port Forwarding

Port Forwarding From Login Nodes

Note

Port forwarding allows an application running on Salomon to connect to arbitrary remote host and port.

It works by tunneling the connection from Salomon back to users workstation and forwarding from the workstation to the remote host.

Pick some unused port on Salomon login node (for example 6000) and establish the port forwarding:

local $ ssh -R 6000:remote.host.com:1234 salomon.it4i.cz

In this example, we establish port forwarding between port 6000 on Salomon and port 1234 on the remote.host.com. By accessing localhost:6000 on Salomon, an application will see response of remote.host.com:1234. The traffic will run via users local workstation.

Port forwarding may be done using PuTTY as well. On the PuTTY Configuration screen, load your Salomon configuration first. Then go to Connection->SSH->Tunnels to set up the port forwarding. Click Remote radio button. Insert 6000 to Source port textbox. Insert remote.host.com:1234. Click Add button, then Open.

Port forwarding may be established directly to the remote host. However, this requires that user has ssh access to remote.host.com

$ ssh -L 6000:localhost:1234 remote.host.com

Note: Port number 6000 is chosen as an example only. Pick any free port.

Port Forwarding From Compute Nodes

Remote port forwarding from compute nodes allows applications running on the compute nodes to access hosts outside Salomon Cluster.

First, establish the remote port forwarding form the login node, as described above.

Second, invoke port forwarding from the compute node to the login node. Insert following line into your jobscript or interactive shell

$ ssh  -TN -f -L 6000:localhost:6000 login1

In this example, we assume that port forwarding from login1:6000 to remote.host.com:1234 has been established beforehand. By accessing localhost:6000, an application running on a compute node will see response of remote.host.com:1234

Using Proxy Servers

Port forwarding is static, each single port is mapped to a particular port on remote host. Connection to other remote host, requires new forward.

Note

Applications with inbuilt proxy support, experience unlimited access to remote hosts, via single proxy server.

To establish local proxy server on your workstation, install and run SOCKS proxy server software. On Linux, sshd demon provides the functionality. To establish SOCKS proxy server listening on port 1080 run:

local $ ssh -D 1080 localhost

On Windows, install and run the free, open source Sock Puppet server.

Once the proxy server is running, establish ssh port forwarding from Salomon to the proxy server, port 1080, exactly as described above.

local $ ssh -R 6000:localhost:1080 salomon.it4i.cz

Now, configure the applications proxy settings to localhost:6000. Use port forwarding to access the proxy server from compute nodes as well.

Graphical User Interface

VPN Access

  • Access to IT4Innovations internal resources via VPN.