Accessing the Cluster¶
The Salomon cluster is accessed by SSH protocol via login nodes login1, login2, login3 and login4 at address salomon.it4i.cz. The login nodes may be addressed specifically, by prepending the login node name to the address.
The alias salomon.it4i.cz is currently not available through VPN connection. Please use loginX.salomon.it4i.cz when connected to VPN.
|Login address||Port||Protocol||Login node|
|salomon.it4i.cz||22||ssh||round-robin DNS record for login[1-4]|
The authentication is by the private key
Please verify SSH fingerprints during the first logon. They are identical on all login nodes: f6:28:98:e4:f9:b2:a6:8f:f2:f4:2d:0a:09:67:69:80 (DSA) 70:01:c9:9a:5d:88:91:c7:1b:c0:84:d1:fa:4e:83:5c (RSA)
Private key authentication:
On Linux or Mac, use
local $ ssh -i /path/to/id_rsa firstname.lastname@example.org
If you see warning message "UNPROTECTED PRIVATE KEY FILE!", use this command to set lower permissions to private key file.
local $ chmod 600 /path/to/id_rsa
On Windows, use PuTTY ssh client.
After logging in, you will see the command prompt:
_____ _ / ____| | | | (___ __ _| | ___ _ __ ___ ___ _ __ \___ \ / _` | |/ _ \| '_ ` _ \ / _ \| '_ \ ____) | (_| | | (_) | | | | | | (_) | | | | |_____/ \__,_|_|\___/|_| |_| |_|\___/|_| |_| http://www.it4i.cz/?lang=en Last login: Tue Jul 9 15:57:38 2013 from your-host.example.com [email@example.com ~]$
The environment is not shared between login nodes, except for shared filesystems.
Data in and out of the system may be transferred by the scp and sftp protocols.
The authentication is by the private key
On linux or Mac, use scp or sftp client to transfer the data to Salomon:
local $ scp -i /path/to/id_rsa my-local-file firstname.lastname@example.org:directory/file
local $ scp -i /path/to/id_rsa -r my-local-dir email@example.com:directory
local $ sftp -o IdentityFile=/path/to/id_rsa firstname.lastname@example.org
Very convenient way to transfer files in and out of the Salomon computer is via the fuse filesystem sshfs
local $ sshfs -o IdentityFile=/path/to/id_rsa email@example.com:. mountpoint
Using sshfs, the users Salomon home directory will be mounted on your local computer, just like an external disk.
Learn more on ssh, scp and sshfs by reading the manpages
$ man ssh $ man scp $ man sshfs
More information about the shared file systems is available here.
Outgoing connections, from Salomon Cluster login nodes to the outside world, are restricted to following ports:
Please use ssh port forwarding and proxy servers to connect from Salomon to all other remote ports.
Outgoing connections, from Salomon Cluster compute nodes are restricted to the internal network. Direct connections form compute nodes to outside world are cut.
Port Forwarding From Login Nodes¶
Port forwarding allows an application running on Salomon to connect to arbitrary remote host and port.
It works by tunneling the connection from Salomon back to users workstation and forwarding from the workstation to the remote host.
Pick some unused port on Salomon login node (for example 6000) and establish the port forwarding:
local $ ssh -R 6000:remote.host.com:1234 salomon.it4i.cz
In this example, we establish port forwarding between port 6000 on Salomon and port 1234 on the remote.host.com. By accessing localhost:6000 on Salomon, an application will see response of remote.host.com:1234. The traffic will run via users local workstation.
Port forwarding may be done using PuTTY as well. On the PuTTY Configuration screen, load your Salomon configuration first. Then go to Connection->SSH->Tunnels to set up the port forwarding. Click Remote radio button. Insert 6000 to Source port textbox. Insert remote.host.com:1234. Click Add button, then Open.
Port forwarding may be established directly to the remote host. However, this requires that user has ssh access to remote.host.com
$ ssh -L 6000:localhost:1234 remote.host.com
Note: Port number 6000 is chosen as an example only. Pick any free port.
Port Forwarding From Compute Nodes¶
Remote port forwarding from compute nodes allows applications running on the compute nodes to access hosts outside Salomon Cluster.
First, establish the remote port forwarding form the login node, as described above.
Second, invoke port forwarding from the compute node to the login node. Insert following line into your jobscript or interactive shell
$ ssh -TN -f -L 6000:localhost:6000 login1
In this example, we assume that port forwarding from login1:6000 to remote.host.com:1234 has been established beforehand. By accessing localhost:6000, an application running on a compute node will see response of remote.host.com:1234
Using Proxy Servers¶
Port forwarding is static, each single port is mapped to a particular port on remote host. Connection to other remote host, requires new forward.
Applications with inbuilt proxy support, experience unlimited access to remote hosts, via single proxy server.
To establish local proxy server on your workstation, install and run SOCKS proxy server software. On Linux, sshd demon provides the functionality. To establish SOCKS proxy server listening on port 1080 run:
local $ ssh -D 1080 localhost
On Windows, install and run the free, open source Sock Puppet server.
Once the proxy server is running, establish ssh port forwarding from Salomon to the proxy server, port 1080, exactly as described above.
local $ ssh -R 6000:localhost:1080 salomon.it4i.cz
Now, configure the applications proxy settings to localhost:6000. Use port forwarding to access the proxy server from compute nodes as well.
Graphical User Interface¶
- The X Window system is a principal way to get GUI access to the clusters.
- The Virtual Network Computing is a graphical desktop sharing system that uses the Remote Frame Buffer protocol to remotely control another computer.
- Access to IT4Innovations internal resources via VPN.